Mishneh Torah - Preface

Introduction | Positive Commandments | Negative Commandments | Structure of the 14 Books

Negative Commandments

, ', "- " ( ,; ,). 1 The first of the negative commandments is not to entertain the thought that there is any god but the LORD, as it is written "thou shalt have no other gods" (Exodus 20,2; Deuteronomy 5,6).
, , "- , -" ( ,; ,). 2 Not to make a graven image, neither to make oneself nor to have made for oneself by others, as it is written "thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness" (Exodus 20,3; and see Deuteronomy 5,7).
, " , " ( ,). 3 Not to make an idol even for others, as it is written "nor make to yourselves molten gods" (Leviticus 19,4).
, , " , : " ( ,). 4 Not to make figures for decoration, even if they are not worshipped, as it is written "ye shall not make with Me--gods of silver" (Exodus 20,19).
, , "- " ( ,; ,). 5 Not to bow down to an object of idolatry, even if that is not its normal way of worship, as it is written "thou shalt not bow down unto them" (Exodus 20,4; Deuteronomy 5,8).
, " " ( ,; ,; ,). 6 Not to worship an object of idolatry in its normal ways of worship, as it is written "nor serve them" (Exodus 20,4; Exodus 23,24; Deuteronomy 5,8).
, " -, " ( ,). 7 Not to turn over to Molech, as it is written "and thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech" (Leviticus 18,21).
, "- -" ( ,). 8 Not to divine by consulting ghosts, as it is written "turn ye not unto the ghosts" (Leviticus 19,31).
, "-" ( ,). 9 Not to resort to familiar spirits as it is written "nor unto familiar spirits" (Leviticus 19,31).
, "-, -" ( ,). 10 Not to turn to idolatry, as it is written "turn ye not unto the idols" (Leviticus 19,4).
, "- , " ( ,). 11 Not to set up a pillar, as it is written "neither shalt thou set thee up a pillar" (Deuteronomy 16,22).
, " " ( ,). 12 Not to set down a stone for prostration, as it is written "neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land" (Leviticus 26,1).
, "- , -" ( ,). 13 Not to plant a tree in the Sanctuary, as it is written "thou shalt not plant thee an Asherah of any kind of tree" (Deuteronomy 16,21).
, , " " ( ,). 14 Not to swear by an idolatry to its worshipers nor cause them to swear by it, as it is written "and make no mention of the name of other gods" (Exodus 23,13).
, " -" ( ,); . 15 Not to proselytize the Children of Israel to idolatry, as it is written "neither let it be heard out of thy mouth" (Exodus 23,13); this is a warning to the proselytizer.
, "- , " ( ,). 16 Not to entice an Israelite to idolatry, as it is written "and shall do no more any such wickedness" (Deuteronomy 13,12).
, "- " ( ,). 17 Not to love the enticer to idolatry, as it is written "thou shalt not consent unto him" (Deuteronomy 13,9).
, " " ( ,). 18 Not to leave off hating the enticer, as it is written "nor hearken unto him" (Deuteronomy 13,9).
, "- " ( ,). 19 Not to save the enticer but to stand by at his death, as it is written "neither shall thine eye pity him" (Deuteronomy 13,9).
, "-" ( ,). 20 For a person whom he attempted to entice not to plead for acquittal of the enticer, as it is written "neither shalt thou spare" (Deuteronomy 13,9).
, , "- " ( ,). 21 For a person whom he attempted to entice not to refrain from pleading for conviction of the enticer, as it is written "neither shalt thou conceal him" (Deuteronomy 13,9).
, "- " ( ,). 22 Not to benefit from the coverings of any object of idolatrous worship, as it is written "thou shalt not covet the silver or the gold that is on them" (Deuteronomy 7,25).
, " " ( ,). 23 Not to rebuild a city that has been proselytized over to idolatry, as it is written "it shall not be built again" (Deuteronomy 13,17).
, "- , -" ( ,). 24 Not to benefit from the property of a city that has been proselytized over to idolatry, as it is written "and there shall cleave nought of the devoted thing to thy hand" (Deuteronomy 13,18).
, , "- -" ( ,). 25 Not to benefit from an object of idolatry, its accessories, or its offerings or wine given as a libation to it, as it is written "and thou shalt not bring an abomination into thy house" (Deuteronomy 7,26).
, " , --, " ( ,). 26 Not to prophesy in its name, as it is written "or that shall speak in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die" (Deuteronomy 18,20).
, " , - " ( ,). 27 Not to prophesy falsely, as it is written "that shall speak a word presumptuously in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak" (Deuteronomy 18,20).
, " , - " ( ,). 28 Not to obey one who prophesies in the name of idolatry, as it is written "thou shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet" (Deuteronomy 13,4).
, " " ( ,). 29 Not to refrain from killing a false prophet nor be in fear of him, as it is written "thou shalt not be afraid of him" (Deuteronomy 18,22).
, " " ( ,). 30 Not to adopt the institutions of idolaters nor their customs, as it is written "and ye shall not walk in the customs of the nation" (Leviticus 20,23).
, "- ... " ( ,). 31 Not to practice black magic, as it is written "there shall not be found among you ... one that useth divination" (Deuteronomy 18,10).
, " " ( ,). 32 Not to practice soothsaying, as it is written "nor soothsaying" (Leviticus 19,26).
, " " ( ,). 33 Not to practice divination, as it is written "neither shall ye practise divination" (Leviticus 19,26).
, "- ... " ( ,). 34 Not to practice sorcery, as it is written "there shall not be found among you ... a sorcerer" (Deuteronomy 18,10).
, ", " ( ,). 35 Not to practice the charmer's art, as it is written "or a charmer" (Deuteronomy 18,11).
, " " ( ,). 36 Not to consult a ghost, as it is written "or one that consulteth a ghost" (Deuteronomy 18,11).
, " " ( ,). 37 Not to consult a familiar spirit, as it is written "or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit" (Deuteronomy 18,11).
, " -" ( ,). 38 Not to enquire of the dead in a dream, as it is written "or a necromancer" (Deuteronomy 18,11).
, "- - -" ( ,). 39 That a woman shall not wear the attire or accessories of a man, as it is written "a woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man" (Deuteronomy 22,5).
, "- " ( ,), . 40 That a man shall not wear the attire or accessories of a woman, as it is written "neither shall a man put on a woman's garment" (Deuteronomy 22,5); for this was a custom of idol worshipers, as is explained in books on its worship.
, " , " ( ,). 41 Not to tattoo the body like idolaters, as it is written "nor imprint any marks upon you" (Leviticus 19,28).
, " " ( ,). 42 Not to wear garments of both wool and linen as idolatrous priests do, as it is written "thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff" (Deuteronomy 22,11).
, " , " ( ,). 43 Not to shave the corners of the head like idolatrous priests, as it is written "ye shall not round the corners of your heads" (Leviticus 19,27).
, " , " ( ,). 44 Not to remove the whole beard like the idolaters, as it is written "neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard" (Leviticus 19,27).
, " " ( ,); . 45 Not to cut oneself like the idolaters, as it is written "ye shall not cut yourselves" (Deuteronomy 14,1); cutting oneself and making incisions in the flesh are the same.
, " , " ( ,). 46 Not to dwell in the Land of Egypt ever, as it is written "ye shall henceforth return no more that way" (Deuteronomy 17,16).
, "- , " ( ,). 47 Not to stray after thoughts of the heart and sights of the eyes, as it is written "and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes" (Numbers 15,39).
, "- " ( ,). 48 Not to make a covenant with the seven Canaanite nations, as it is written "thou shalt make no covenant with them" (Deuteronomy 7,2).
, " , -" ( ,). 49 Not to keep alive any person of the seven Canaanite nations, as it is written "thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth" (Deuteronomy 20,16).
, " " ( ,). 50 Not to have mercy on idolaters, as it is written "nor show mercy unto them" (Deuteronomy 7,2).
, " " ( ,). 51 Not to allow idolaters to settle in our land, as it is written "they shall not dwell in thy land" (Exodus 23,33).
, " , " ( ,). 52 Not to intermarry with idolaters, as it is written "neither shalt thou make marriages with them" (Deuteronomy 7,3).
, "- " ( ,). 53 That an Ammonite or Moabite shall never marry the daughter of an Israelite, as it is written "an Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter" (Deuteronomy 23,4).
, "- " ( ,). 54 Not to exclude the offspring of Esau from the community of Israel more than three generations, as it is written "thou shalt not abhor an Edomite" (Deuteronomy 23,8).
, "- " ( ,). 55 Not to exclude an Egyptian from entering the community of Israel more than three generations, as it is written "thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian" (Deuteronomy 23,8).
, "- , " ( ,). 56 Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab before waging war on them as with other nations, as it is written "thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity" (Deuteronomy 23,7).
, , "- -" ( ,). 57 Not to destroy fruit trees, nor may anything else be pointlessly destroyed, as it is written "thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof" (Deuteronomy 20,19).
, " , " ( ,), ", " ( ,). 58 That warriors shall not fear their enemies nor be frightened of them in battle, as it is written "thou shalt not be affrighted at them" (Deuteronomy 7,21), "ye shall not fear them" (Deuteronomy 3,22).
, ", " ( ,). 59 That the evil deeds done to us by Amalek shall not depart from our hearts, as it is written "thou shalt not forget" (Deuteronomy 25,19).
, ", " ( ,), " -' " ( ,). : , -- , . 60 That we are warned against blasphemy, as it is written "thou shalt not revile God" (Exodus 22,27); and on the penalty it is written "and he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death" (Leviticus 24,16). The general rule is that wherever Scripture prescribes the penalty of excision or capital punishment, there is a negative commandment, aside from circumcision and the Pesach sacrifice, which are punished by excision though they are positive commandments.
, "- , " ( ,). 61 Not to violate an oath, as it is written "and ye shall not swear by My name falsely" (Leviticus 19,12).
, " --' , " ( ,; ,). 62 Not to take an oath in vain, as it is written "thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain" (Exodus 20,6; Deuteronomy 5,10).
, " , - " ( ,). 63 Not to profane the name of the Holy One blessed be He, as it is written "and shall not profane My holy name" (Leviticus 22,32).
', " , -' " ( ,). 64 Not to test the word of the LORD, as it is written "ye shall not try the LORD your God" (Deuteronomy 6,16).
, , ; , , " ... " ( ,-), "- , ' " ( ,). 65 Not to destroy the Temple, synagogues, or houses of study; similarly, it is forbidden to erase the holy names or destroy the holy Scriptures, as it is written "ye shall surely destroy ... and burn their Asherim" (Deuteronomy 12,2-3), "ye shall not do so unto the LORD your God" (Deuteronomy 12,4).
, "- -" ( ,). 66 That a hanged corpse shall not remain on the tree overnight, as it is written "his body shall not remain all night upon the tree" (Deuteronomy 21,23).
, ", " ( ,). 67 Not to cease the watch around the Temple, as it is written "and ye shall keep the charge of the holy things" (Numbers 18,5).
, "- - -" ( ,). 68 That a Priest shall not enter the Temple at all times, as it is written "that he come not at all times into the holy place" (Leviticus 16,2).
, " - " ( ,). 69 That a Priest with a disqualifying blemish shall not enter the Temple up to the Altar or beyond, as it is written "only he shall not go in unto the veil" (Leviticus 21,23).
, " -- " ( ,). 70 That a Priest with a disqualifying blemish shall not serve, as it is written "that hath a blemish, let him not approach" (Leviticus 21,17).
, "- - , " ( ,). 71 That a Priest with a temporary disqualifying blemish shall not serve, as it is written "whatsoever man he be that hath a blemish, he shall not approach" (Leviticus 21,18).
, " - - ... - -" ( ,). 72 That the Levites shall not engage in the service of the Priests nor the Priests in the service of the Levites, as it is written "only they shall not come nigh unto the holy furniture and unto the altar ... neither they, nor ye" (Numbers 18,3).
, " - ... ... , - " ( ,-). 73 That a wine-intoxicated person shall not enter the Temple nor give decisions in matters of Torah, as it is written "drink no wine nor strong drink ... when ye go into ... and that ye may teach the Children of Israel" (Leviticus 10,9-11).
, ", - " ( ,). 74 That a non-priest shall not serve in the Temple, as it is written "but a common man shall not draw nigh unto you" (Numbers 18,4).
, " -" ( ,). 75 That a Priest who is unclean shall not serve, as it is written "that they separate themselves from the holy things of the Children of Israel" (Leviticus 22,2).
, " , " ( ,). 76 That a Priest who took a purifying ritual bath shall not serve before the stars come out on the following evening, as it is written "and not profane the name of their God" (Leviticus 21,6).
, " -" ( ,); . 77 That one who is unclean shall not enter the Courtyard, as it is written "that they defile not their camp" (Numbers 5,3); this is the camp of the Holy Presence.
, , " - " ( ,); . 78 That one who is unclean shall not enter the Camp of the Levites, and corresponding to it for all time is the Temple Mount, as it is written "he shall not come within the camp" (Deuteronomy 23,11); this is the Camp of the Levites.
, "- " ( ,). 79 Not to build the Altar of hewn stones, as it is written "thou shalt not build it of hewn stones" (Exodus 20,21).
, "- , -" ( ,). 80 Not to take steps upon the Altar, as it is written "neither shalt thou go up by steps unto Mine Altar" (Exodus 20,22).
, ", --- " ( ,). 81 Not to extinguish the fire of the Altar, as it is written "fire shall be kept burning upon the Altar continually; it shall not go out" (Leviticus 6,6).
, "- " ( ,). 82 Not to offer incense or any sacrifice upon the Golden Altar, as it is written "ye shall offer no strange incense thereon" (Exodus 30,9).
, ", " ( ,). 83 Not to make a duplicate of the formula of the anointing oil, as it is written "neither shall ye make any like it, according to the composition thereof" (Exodus 30,32).
, "- , " ( ,). 84 Not to anoint an improper person with the anointing oil, as it is written "upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured" (Exodus 30,32).
, ", " ( ,). 85 Not to make a duplicate of the formula of the incense, as it is written "and according to the composition thereof ye shall not make for yourselves" (see Exodus 30,37).
, " , " ( ,). 86 Not to take out the staves of the Ark, as it is written "they shall not be taken from it" (Exodus 25,15).
, "- , " ( ,; ,). 87 That the breastplate shall not be loosened from the ephod, as it is written "and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod" (Exodus 28,28; Exodus 39,21).
, " --- " ( ,). 88 That a High Priest's robe not be torn, as it is written "as it were the hole of a coat of mail that it be not rent" (Exodus 28,32).
, " , - " ( ,). 89 Not to offer sacrifices outside the Temple, as it is written "take heed to thyself that thou offer not thy burnt-offerings" (Deuteronomy 12,13).
, " - ... - , ... " ( ,-). 90 Not to slaughter consecrated animals outside the Temple, as it is written "that killeth an ox, or lamb ... and hath not brought it unto the door of the Tent of Meeting ... and shall be cut off" (Leviticus 17,3-4).
, " - , " ( ,); . 91 Not to consecrate animals with disqualifying blemishes for sacrifice, as it is written "whatsoever hath a blemish, that shall ye not bring" (Leviticus 22,20); this forbids consecration for sacrifice.
, "- , '" ( ,). 92 Not to slaughter animals with disqualifying blemishes as sacrifices, as it is written "ye shall not offer these unto the LORD" (Leviticus 22,22).
, " '" ( ,); . 93 Not to sprinkle the blood of animals with disqualifying blemishes on the Altar, as it is written on blemished animals "ye shall not offer unto the LORD" (Leviticus 22,24); this forbids the sprinkling of their blood.
, ", - -" ( ,). 94 Not to burn the choice portions from animals with disqualifying blemishes upon the Altar, as it is written "nor make an offering by fire of them upon the altar" (Leviticus 22,22).
, "- ' , " ( ,); . 95 Not to sacrifice an animal with temporary disqualifying blemishes, as it is written "thou shalt not sacrifice unto the LORD thy God an ox, or a sheep, wherein is a blemish" (Deuteronomy 17,1); this is a temporary blemish.
, " -, " ( ,). 96 Not to sacrifice an animal with disqualifying blemishes from Gentiles, as it is written "neither from the hand of a foreigner shall ye offer " (Leviticus 22,25).
, "- -" ( ,); , . 97 Not to inflict a blemish in consecrated animals, as it is written "there shall be no blemish therein" (Leviticus 22,21); that is, you shall not inflict a blemish in it.
, " - -, -" ( ,). 98 Not to offer leaven or honey, as it is written "for ye shall make no leaven, nor any honey, smoke as an offering" (Leviticus 2,11).
, " " ( ,). 99 Not to bring any offering unsalted, as it is written "neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking" (Leviticus 2,13).
, "- " ( ,). 100 Not to bring sacrifices of animals taken in exchange for services of a prostitute or in exchange for a dog, as it is written "thou shalt not bring the hire of a harlot, or the price of a dog" (Deuteronomy 23,19).
, " -, " ( ,). 101 Not to slaughter an animal and its young on the same day, as it is written "ye shall not kill it and its young both in one day" (Leviticus 22,28).
, "- " ( ,). 102 Not to put olive oil on the meal offering of a sinner, as it is written "he shall put no oil upon it" (Leviticus 5,11).
, "- " ( ,). 103 Not to put frankincense on it, as it is written "neither shall he put any frankincense thereon" (Leviticus 5,11).
, "- " ( ,). 104 Not to put olive oil on the meal offering of a woman suspected of adultery, as it is written "he shall pour no oil upon it" (Numbers 5,15).
, "- " ( ,). 105 Not to put frankincense on it, as it is written "nor put frankincense thereon" (Numbers 5,15).
, " , - " ( ,). 106 Not to substitute for a consecrated animal, as it is written "he shall not alter it, nor change it, a good for a bad" (Leviticus 27,10).
, "- , " ( ,); , . 107 Not to change a consecrated animal from one kind of sacrifice to another, as it is written on the first-born "no man shall sanctify it" (Leviticus 27,26); that is, not to sanctify it as another kind of sacrifice.
, " - ... " ( ,). 108 Not to redeem the first-born of a clean animal, as it is written "but the firstling of an ox ... thou shalt not redeem" (Numbers 18,17).
, " " ( ,). 109 Not to sell the tithe of animals, as it is written "it shall not be redeemed" (Leviticus 27,33).
, "- ... " ( ,). 110 Not to sell a field devoted to the LORD, as it is written "no devoted thing ... shall be sold" (Leviticus 27,28).
, " " ( ,). 111 Not to redeem a field devoted to the LORD, as it is written "nor redeemed" (Leviticus 27,28).
, " - , " ( ,). 112 Not to sever the head of a fowl brought as a sin offering, as it is written "and pinch off its head close by its neck, but shall not divide it asunder" (Leviticus 5,8).
, " " ( ,). 113 Not to do work with consecrated animals, as it is written "thou shalt do no work with the firstling of thine ox" (Deuteronomy 15,19).
, " " ( ,). 114 Not to shear consecrated animals, as it is written "nor shear the firstling of thy flock" (Deuteronomy 15,19).
, "- -, -" ( ,). 115 Not to slaughter the Pesach sacrifice while in possession of leaven, as it is written "thou shalt not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread" (Exodus 34,25).
, "- -, -" ( ,). 116 Not to leave the choice parts of the Pesach sacrifice overnight so that they become unfit for burning on the Altar, as it is written "neither shall the fat of My feast remain all night until the morning" (Exodus 23,18).
, "- , -" ( ,). 117 Not to leave the flesh of the Pesach sacrifice overnight, as it is written "and ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning" (Exodus 12,10).
, "- - ..." ( ,); , "" () , . 118 Not to leave any of the festival offering of the Fourteenth of Nisan over until the third day, as it is written "neither shall any of the flesh remain all night ..." (Deuteronomy 16,4); it was learned from the oral tradition that this refers to the festival offering of the Fourteenth of Nisan, and "until the morning" (ibid.) means until the morning of the second day of Pesach, which is the third day from slaughtering.
, "- -" ( ,). 119 Not to leave any flesh of the Second Pesach sacrifice until the morning, as it is written "they shall leave none of it unto the morning" (Numbers 9,12).
, "- -" ( ,); , . 120 Not to leave any flesh of the thanksgiving offering until the morning, as it is written "and ye shall leave none of it until the morning" (see Leviticus 22,30); and the same applies to the other sacrifices, which must not be left over beyond the time of their eating.
, ", -" ( ,). 121 Not to break a bone of the Pesach sacrifice, as it is written "neither shall ye break a bone thereof" (Exodus 12,46).
, " -" ( ,). 122 Not to break a bone of the Second Pesach sacrifice, as it is written "nor break a bone thereof" (Numbers 9,12).
, "- -" ( ,). 123 Not to take out any flesh of the Pesach sacrifice from the place of the group eating it, as it is written "thou shalt not carry forth abroad out of the house" (Exodus 12,46).
, " " ( ,). 124 Not to allow the remainder of the meal offerings to become leavened, as it is written "it shall not be baked with leaven" (Leviticus 6,10).
, "- , " ( ,). 125 Not to eat the flesh of the Pesach sacrifice raw or boiled, as it is written "eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water" (Exodus 12,9).
, " , - " ( ,). 126 Not to feed the flesh of the Pesach sacrifice to a resident alien, as it is written "a sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof" (Exodus 12,45).
, "-, - " ( ,). 127 That the uncircumcised shall not eat the flesh of the Pesach sacrifice, as it is written "but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof" (Exodus 12,48).
, "--, - " ( ,); , . 128 Not to feed the flesh of the Pesach sacrifice to an apostate Israelite, as it is written "there shall no alien eat thereof" (Exodus 12,43); that is, an Israelite who has associated himself with Gentiles and worshipped idolatry like them shall not eat it.
, " - , ', , --" ( ,). 129 That a person who is unclean shall not eat consecrated food, as it is written "but the soul that eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, that pertain unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, shall be cut off" (Leviticus 7,20).
, " - -, " ( ,). 130 Not to eat consecrated foods that have become unclean, as it is written "and the flesh that toucheth any unclean thing shall not be eaten" (Leviticus 7,19).
, " ‍ ... , " ( ,). 131 Not to eat a sacrifice that has been left over, as it is written "but every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity ... and that soul shall be cut off from his people" (Leviticus 19,8).
, " , ; , ‍ " ( ,); . 132 Not to eat the abomination of intended delay, as it is written "neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it; it shall be an abhorred thing, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity" (Leviticus 7,18); it is punished by excision.
, "-, - " ( ,). 133 That an unauthorized person shall not eat the heave offerings, as it is written "there shall no common man eat of the holy thing" (Leviticus 22,10).
, " , - " ( ,). 134 That even the tenant of a Priest or his hired worker shall not eat a heave offering, as it is written "a tenant of a Priest, or a hired servant, shall not eat of the holy thing" (Leviticus 22,10).
, . , ; , . 135 That the uncircumcised shall not eat a heave offering, and the same applies to other consecrated food. This rule is implied by the Scripture in the Pesach offering by an analogy from similarity of wording, but it is not explicit in the Torah; it was learned from the oral tradition that the prohibition of the uncircumcised in consecrated foods is a commandment of the Torah itself, and not a rabbinical enactment.
, " ... " ( ,; ,). 136 That a Priest who is unclean shall not eat a heave offering, as it is written "whosoever he be of thy seed ... shall not eat of the holy things" (see Leviticus 21,17; Leviticus 22,4).
, , "--- , : , " ( ,). 137 That a profaned woman shall not eat consecrated food, neither heave offerings nor the breast and foreleg, as it is written "and if a Priest's daughter be married unto a common man, she shall not eat of that which is set apart from the holy things" (Leviticus 22,12).
, "- , " ( ,). 138 Not to eat the Priest's meal offering, as it is written "and every meal-offering of the Priest shall be wholly made to smoke; it shall not be eaten" (Leviticus 6,16).
, "- ... " ( ,). 139 Not to eat the flesh of sin offerings brought inside, as it is written "and no sin-offering, whereof any of the blood is brought ... shall be eaten" (Leviticus 6,23).
, " , -" ( ,); . 140 Not to eat the flesh of unfit consecrated animals in which a blemish has been inflicted intentionally, as it is written "thou shalt not eat any abominable thing" (Deuteronomy 14,3); it was learned from the oral tradition that this refers to unfit consecrated animals in which a blemish was inflicted.
, "- , " ( ,). 141 Not to eat the second tithe of grain outside Jerusalem, as it is written "thou mayest not eat within thy gates the tithe of thy corn" (Deuteronomy 12,17).
, "" ( ,). 142 Not to eat the second tithe of wine outside Jerusalem, as it is written "thy wine" (Deuteronomy 12,17).
, "" ( ,). 143 Not to eat the second tithe of oil outside Jerusalem, as it is written "or of thine oil" (Deuteronomy 12,17).
, "- ... " ( ,). 144 Not to eat an unblemished first-born animal outside Jerusalem, as it is written "thou mayest not ... or the firstlings" (Deuteronomy 12,17).
, "- ... , " ( ,); , "- " () . 145 That the Priests shall not eat the flesh of the sin offering or guilt offering outside the Courtyard, as it is written "thou mayest not ... of thy herd or of thy flock" (Deuteronomy 12,17); it was learned from the oral tradition that this prohibits the flesh of the sin offering or the guilt offering outside the Courtyard, since anything eaten outside the proper place of its eating comes within "thou mayest not eat within thy gates" (ibid.).
, "- ... " ( ,); , . , ; , . 146 Not to eat the flesh of the burnt offering, as it is written "thou mayest not ... nor any of thy vows which thou vowest" (see Deuteronomy 12,17); that is, you shall not eat the sacrifices you vow. This is a warning against anyone who would benefit from consecrated property, that one must not benefit from any of the consecrated items forbidden to be benefited from; and if one does benefit, he becomes responsible for the forbidden benefit.
, "- ... " ( ,); , . 147 Not to eat the flesh of the minor sacrifices before the sprinkling of the blood, as it is written "thou mayest not ... thy freewill-offerings" (Deuteronomy 12,17); that is, you may not eat your free-will offerings, until their blood has been sprinkled.
, " -, - " ( ,). 148 That the non-priest shall not eat the flesh of the most holy sacrifices, as it is written "but a stranger shall not eat thereof, because they are holy" (Exodus 29,33).
, "- ... " ( ,); . 149 That a Priest shall not eat the first fruits before they are set down in the Courtyard, as it is written "thou mayest not ... nor the offering of thy hand" (Deuteronomy 12,17); these are the first fruits.
, "- " ( ,). 150 Not to eat the second tithe while unclean, even in Jerusalem, until it has been redeemed, as it is written "neither have I put away thereof, being unclean" (Deuteronomy 26,14).
, "- " ( ,). 151 Not to eat the second tithe while in mourning, as it is written "I have not eaten thereof in my mourning" (Deuteronomy 26,14).
, "- , " ( ,); , " , " . 152 Not to spend redemption money of the second tithe for anything but food and drink, as it is written "nor given thereof for the dead", (Deuteronomy 26,14); anything other than necessities of the living body comes within "given thereof for the dead".
; , ': " , - -- -, '" ( ,); , ', . 153 Not to eat produce from which priestly portions have not yet been removed; it is produce of the soil from which heave offering and tithes have to be separated, before taking out the heave offering to the LORD: as it is written "and they shall not profane the holy things of the Children of Israel, which they set apart unto the LORD" (Leviticus 22,15); that is, what is to be separated out for the LORD must not be treated as profane and eaten before the separation.
, , , : , , , ; " , " ( ,), . 154 Not to take out heave offerings before the first fruits, nor the first tithe before the heave offering, nor the second tithe before the first tithe, but take them out in the proper order: first fruits at the start, then the great heave offering, then the first tithe, and then the second tithe, as it is written "thou shalt not delay to offer of the fulness of thy harvest, and of the outflow of thy presses" (Exodus 22,28); that is, you shall not delay what should be earlier.
, " " ( ,). 155 Not to delay vowed offerings or free-will offerings, as it is written "thou shalt not be slack to pay it" (Deuteronomy 23,22).
, "- , " ( ,). 156 Not to go up on a pilgrimage festival without an offering, as it is written "and none shall appear before Me empty" (Exodus 23,15).
, " , " ( ,). 157 Not to transgress in matters that one has forbidden himself, as it is written "he shall not break his word" (Numbers 30,3).
, " ... " ( ,). 158 That a Priest shall not marry a harlot, as it is written "they shall not take a woman that is a harlot" (Leviticus 21,7).
, " " ( ,). 159 That a Priest shall not marry a profaned woman, as it is written "they shall not take ... or profaned" (Leviticus 21,7).
, " " ( ,). 160 That a Priest shall not marry a divorced woman, as it is written "neither shall they take a woman put away from her husband" (Leviticus 21,7).
, " , - " ( ,). 161 That a High Priest shall not marry a widow, as it is written "a widow, or one divorced, or a profaned woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take" (Leviticus 21,14).
, , , "- , " ( ,); . 162 That a High Priest shall not have sexual relations with a widow, even without marriage, because he profanes her, and it is written "and he shall not profane his seed among his people" (Leviticus 21,15); thus, he is warned against profaning one who would be otherwise fit.
, " -" ( ,). 163 That a Priest shall not enter the Temple with unkempt hair, as it is written "let not the hair of your heads go loose" (Leviticus 10,6).
, " -" ( ,). 164 That a Priest shall not enter the Temple in torn clothing, as it is written "neither rend your clothes" (Leviticus 10,6).
, " " ( ,). 165 That a Priest shall not leave the Courtyard during the service, as it is written "and ye shall not go out from the door of the Tent of Meeting" (Leviticus 10,7).
, " - " ( ,). 166 That an ordinary Priest shall not become unclean by contact with the dead other than [certain relatives], as it is written "there shall none defile himself for the dead among his people" (Leviticus 21,1).
, " , " ( ,). 167 That a High Priest shall not become unclean even for his relatives, as it is written "nor defile himself for his father, or for his mother" (Leviticus 21,11).
, " - , " ( ,); , . 168 That a High Priest shall not go into the place of a corpse, as it is written "neither shall he go in to any dead body" (Leviticus 21,11); thus it was learned from the oral tradition, that he is liable for punishment both from going into the place of a corpse and from becoming unclean.
, " --" ( ,). 169 That none of the tribe of Levi shall take any portion in the Land of Israel, as it is written "and they shall have no inheritance" (Deuteronomy 18,2).
, "- " ( ,). 170 That none of the tribe of Levi shall take any share in the spoils in the conquest of the Land of Israel, as it is written "the Priests the Levites shall have no" (Deuteronomy 18,1).
, "- --" ( ,). 171 Not to make a bald spot for the dead, as it is written "nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead" (Deuteronomy 14,1).
, " -, , " ( ,; ,). 172 Not to eat an unclean animal, as it is written "nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud" (Leviticus 11,4; Deuteronomy 14,7).
, ", ; " ( ,). 173 Not to eat unclean fish, as it is written "and they shall be a detestable thing unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh" (Leviticus 11,11).
, "- -, " ( ,). 174 Not to eat unclean fowl, as it is written "and these ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten" (Leviticus 11,13).
, " , : , " ( ,). 175 Not to eat winged swarming things, as it is written "all winged swarming things are unclean unto you; they shall not be eaten" (Deuteronomy 14,19).
, "-, --- , " ( ,). 176 Not to eat things that swarm upon the earth, as it is written "and every swarming thing that swarmeth upon the earth is a detestable thing; it shall not be eaten" (Leviticus 11,41).
, " -, - -" ( ,). 177 Not to eat things that creep upon the earth, as it is written "neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of swarming thing that moveth upon the earth" (Leviticus 11,44).
, "-, --- " ( ,). 178 Not to eat a worm found in fruit once it has come out into the air, as it is written "even all swarming things that swarm upon the earth, them ye shall not eat" (Leviticus 11,42).
, "-, -, -, " ( ,). 179 Not to eat things that swarm in the water, as it is written "ye shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing that swarmeth" (Leviticus 11,43).
, " -" ( ,). 180 Not to eat an animal that died without slaughtering, as it is written "ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself" (Deuteronomy 14,21).
, " " ( ,). 181 Not to eat an animal that is fatally injured, as it is written "ye shall not eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field" (Exodus 22,30).
, "- , -" ( ,). 182 Not to eat a limb removed from a living animal, as it is written "and thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh" (Deuteronomy 12,23).
, "- - - - " ( ,). 183 Not to eat the sciatic nerve, as it is written "therefore the Children of Israel eat not the sinew of the thigh-vein" (Genesis 32,33).
, "-, " ( ,; ,). 184 Not to eat blood, as it is written "and ye shall eat no manner of blood" (Leviticus 3,17; Leviticus 7,26).
, "- , -- " ( ,). 185 Not to eat suet, as it is written "ye shall eat no fat, of ox, or sheep, or goat" (Leviticus 7,23).
, "- , " ( ,; ,; ,). 186 Not to cook meat with milk, as it is written "thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk (Exodus 23,19; Exodus 34,26; Deuteronomy 14,21).
, "- , " ( ,); , . 187 Not to eat meat with milk, as it is written a second time "thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk" (Exodus 34,26); thus was it learned from the oral tradition, that one is to prohibit cooking and one is to prohibit eating.
, " -" ( ,). 188 Not to eat the flesh of an ox condemned to be stoned, as it is written "and its flesh shall not be eaten" (Exodus 21,28).
, " ... " ( ,). 189 Not to eat bread of the new crop before Pesach, as it is written "and ye shall eat neither bread" (Leviticus 23,14).
, " ... " ( ,). 190 Not to eat roasted grain of the new crop, as it is written "and ye shall eat neither ... nor parched corn" (Leviticus 23,14).
, " " ( ,). 191 Not to eat fresh grain of the new crop, as it is written "and ye shall eat neither ... nor fresh ears" (Leviticus 23,14).
, " , -- " ( ,). 192 Not to eat fruit of a tree in the first three years from planting, as it is written "three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten" (Leviticus 19,23).
, "-, , , " ( ,); . 193 Not to eat grains or vegetables sown in a vineyard, as it is written "lest the fulness of the seed which thou hast sown be forfeited together with the increase of the vineyard" (Deuteronomy 22,9); this is a prohibition to eat.
, " , " ( ,). 194 Not to drink wine of libation to idolatry, as it is written "who did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink-offering (Deuteronomy 32,38).
, " ... , " ( ,). 195 Not to eat and drink like a glutton and a drunkard, as it is written "this our son ... is a glutton, and a drunkard" (Deuteronomy 21,20).
, " - -" ( ,). 196 Not to eat on the Day of the Fast, as it is written "for whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted" (Leviticus 23,29).
, " , " ( ,). 197 Not to eat leaven on Pesach, as it is written "there shall no leavened bread be eaten" (Exodus 13,3).
, "-, " ( ,). 198 Not to eat a mixture containing leaven, as it is written "ye shall eat nothing leavened" (Exodus 12,20).
, "- " ( ,). 199 Not to eat leaven after noon on the Fourteenth of Nisan, as it is written "thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it" (Deuteronomy 16,3).
, "- " ( ,). 200 That leaven shall not be seen during Pesach, as it is written "and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee" (Exodus 13,7).
, ", " ( ,). 201 That leaven shall not be found during Pesach, as it is written "shall there be no leaven found in your houses" (Exodus 12,19).
, , "- " ( ,); , , " " (). 202 That a Nazarite shall not drink wine, nor anything mixed with wine having the taste of wine, as it is written "or any liquor of grapes" (Numbers 6,3); and even if the wine or the mixture of wine has turned into vinegar, it is prohibited to him, as it is written "he shall drink no vinegar of wine, or vinegar of strong drink" (ibid.).
, " ... " ( ,). 203 That he shall not eat fresh grapes, as it is written "nor eat fresh grapes" (Numbers 6,3).
, " " ( ,). 204 That he shall not eat raisins, as it is written "nor eat dried" (Numbers 6,3).
, " ... " ( ,). 205 That he shall not eat grape seeds, as it is written "he shall not eat grape seeds" (Numbers 6,4).
, "--- " ( ,). 206 That he shall not eat grape skins, as it is written "he shall not eat even grapeskins" (Numbers 6,4).
, " ... - , " ( ,). 207 That a Nazarite shall not become unclean from a corpse, as it is written "he shall not make himself unclean for his father, or for his mother ... when they die" (Numbers 6,7).
, "- , " ( ,). 208 That he shall not enter under any covering where there is a corpse, as it is written "he shall not come near to a dead body" (Numbers 6,6).
, " - -" ( ,). 209 That the Nazarite shall not cut his hair, as it is written "there shall no razor come upon his head" (Numbers 6,5).
, "- " ( ,). 210 Not to reap the whole field, as it is written "thou shalt not wholly reap the end of thy field" (Leviticus 23,22).
, " , " ( ,; ,). 211 Not to gather the stalks fallen while reaping, as it is written "neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest" (Leviticus 19,9; Leviticus 23,22).
, " " ( ,). 212 Not to harvest the imperfect clusters of the vineyard, as it is written "and thou shalt not glean thy vineyard" (Leviticus 19,10).
, " " ( ,). 213 Not to gather individual fallen grapes, as it is written "neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard" (Leviticus 19,10).
, " " ( ,); , " " ( ,). 214 Not to take the forgotten sheaf, as it is written "thou shalt not go back to fetch it" (Deuteronomy 24,19); this also applies to all fruit trees, as it is written "thou shalt not go over the boughs again" (Deuteronomy 24,20).
, " - " ( ,). 215 Not to sow different kinds of seed together, as it is written "thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed" (Leviticus 19,19).
, "- , " ( ,). 216 Not to sow grain or vegetables in a vineyard, as it is written "thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with two kinds of seed" (Deuteronomy 22,9).
, " - " ( ,). 217 Not to crossbreed animals of different species, as it is written "thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind" (Leviticus 19,19).
, "- -, " ( ,). 218 Not to work with animals of two species together, as it is written "thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together" (Deuteronomy 22,10).
, "- , " ( ,). 219 Not to muzzle an animal while working in produce it can eat and enjoy, as it is written "thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn" (Deuteronomy 25,4).
, " " ( ,). 220 Not to work the ground in the Sabbatical year, as it is written "thou shalt neither sow thy field" (Leviticus 25,4).
, " " ( ,). 221 Not to work trees in the Sabbatical year, as it is written "nor prune thy vineyard" (Leviticus 25,4).
, " " ( ,). 222 Not to harvest what grows by itself in the Sabbatical year in the way it is harvested in other years, as it is written "that which groweth of itself of thy harvest thou shalt not reap" (Leviticus 25,5).
, "- " ( ,). 223 Not to gather the fruit of trees in the Sabbatical year in the way it is gathered in all the other years, as it is written "and the grapes of thy undressed vine thou shalt not gather" (Leviticus 25,5).
, " " ( ,). 224 Not to work in the Jubilee year either in the ground or in the trees, as it is written on it "ye shall not sow" (Leviticus 25,11).
, " -" ( ,). 225 Not to harvest what grows by itself in the Jubilee year as in the other years, as it is written on it "neither reap that which groweth of itself in it" (Leviticus 25,11).
, " -" ( ,). 226 Not to gather fruit of the trees in the Jubilee year in the way of gathering of other years, as it is written on it "nor gather the grapes in it of the undressed vines" (Leviticus 25,11).
, ", " ( ,). 227 Not to sell land in the Land of Israel in perpetuity, as it is written "and the land shall not be sold in perpetuity" (Leviticus 25,23).
, " , " ( ,); . 228 Not to change the open lands and fields of cities of the Levites, as it is written "but the fields of the open land about their cities may not be sold" (Leviticus 25,34); it was learned from the oral tradition that this is a warning that they not change.
, " , - -" ( ,), . 229 Not to forsake the Levites, as it is written "take heed to thyself that thou forsake not the Levite" (Deuteronomy 12,19); but rather their gifts are to be given them, and they are to be gladdened on each and every pilgrimage festival.
, "- - -" ( ,). 230 Not to demand return of a loan after the Sabbatical year has passed, as it is written "he shall not exact it of his neighbour and his brother" (Deuteronomy 15,2).
, " - ..." ( ,). -- , . 231 Not to refrain from loaning a poor person because of the Sabbatical year, as it is written "beware that there be not a base thought ..." (Deuteronomy 15,9). The general rule is that wherever it is written "beware", "lest", or "do not", there is a negative commandment.
, " - ..." ( ,); , . 232 Not to refrain from maintaining a poor person and giving him whatever he needs, as it is written "thou shalt not harden thy heart ..." (Deuteronomy 15,7); thus, whoever bestows charity fulfills a positive commandment, and one who shuts his eyes and refrains from giving charity not only neglects a positive commandment, but also violates a negative commandment.
, " , " ( ,). 233 Not to send away a Hebrew bondman empty handed when he goes free, as it is written "thou shalt not let him go empty" (Deuteronomy 15,13).
, , "- , " ( ,). 234 Not to demand from a poor person repayment of his debt when one knows that he is poor, nor cause him grief, as it is written "thou shalt not be to him as a creditor" (Exodus 22,24).
, "---- , ; " ( ,). 235 Not to loan to an Israelite on interest, as it is written "thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest" (Leviticus 25,37).
, "- " ( ,); , . 236 Not to borrow on interest, as it is written "thou shalt not lend upon interest to thy brother" (Deuteronomy 23,20); thus it was learned from the oral tradition, that this is a warning to the borrower not to give the lender interest.
, , , , "- , " ( ,). 237 Not to intermediate between a borrower and lender on interest, either as guarantor, or as witness, or as scribe of the document between them, as it is written "neither shall ye lay upon him interest" (Exodus 22,24).
, "- " ( ,). 238 Not to delay payment of a hired worker's wages, as it is written "the wages of a hired servant shall not abide all night" (Leviticus 19,13).
, "- -, " ( ,). 239 That a creditor shall not exact a pledge by force, as it is written "thou shalt not go into his house to fetch his pledge" (Deuteronomy 24,10).
, " , " ( ,); , , , . 240 Not to keep the pledge from its poor owner at the time when he needs it, as it is written "thou shalt not sleep with his pledge" (Deuteronomy 24,12); that is, you shall not go to sleep while his pledge is with you, but you shall return it to him at night, since he needs it at night.
, " , " ( ,). 241 Not to take a pledge from a widow, as it is written "nor take the widow's raiment to pledge" (Deuteronomy 24,17).
, "- , " ( ,). 242 Not to take in pledge utensils used in preparing food, as it is written "no man shall take the mill or the upper millstone to pledge" (Deuteronomy 24,6).
, " " ( ,; ,); . 243 Not to kidnap any person of Israel, as it is written "thou shalt not steal" (Exodus 20,12; Deuteronomy 5,16); this is theft of a person.
, ", " ( ,); . 244 Not to steal property, as it is written "ye shall not steal" (Leviticus 19,11); this is theft of property.
, " " ( ,). 245 Not to rob, as it is written "nor rob" (Leviticus 19,13).
, " " ( ,). 246 Not to move landmarks, as it is written "thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark" (Deuteronomy 19,14).
, "- -" ( ,). 247 Not to oppress, as it is written "thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour" (Leviticus 19,13).
, "-" ( ,). 248 Not to falsely deny another's claim to property, as it is written "neither shall ye deal falsely" (Leviticus 19,11).
, "-" ( ,); , . 249 Not to swear falsely in denial of another's claim to property, as it is written "nor lie one to another" (Leviticus 19,11); that is, do not swear falsely as to your neighbor's property that is in your possession.
, "-, -" ( ,). 250 That one shall not wrong others in buying and selling, as it is written "ye shall not wrong one another" (Leviticus 25,14).
, " -, " ( ,); . 251 That one shall not wrong others in speech, as it is written "and ye shall not wrong one another; but thou shalt fear thy God" (Leviticus 25,17); this is wronging in speech.
, " -" ( ,). 252 Not to wrong the convert in speech, as it is written "and a stranger shalt thou not wrong" (Exodus 22,20).
, " " ( ,). 253 Not to wrong the convert in buying and selling, as it is written "neither shalt thou oppress him" (Exodus 22,20).
, "- , -" ( ,). 254 Not to return a slave that fled to the Land of Israel to his master outside the Land, as it is written "thou shalt not deliver unto his master a bondman" (Deuteronomy 23,16).
, " ... ; , " ( ,). 255 Not to wrong such a slave, as it is written "he shall dwell with thee, in the midst of thee ... where it liketh him best; thou shalt not wrong him" (Deuteronomy 23,17).
, "- , " ( ,). 256 Not to afflict an orphan or widow, as it is written "ye shall not afflict any widow, or orphan" (Exodus 22,21).
, "- , " ( ,). 257 Not to work a Hebrew bondman in the work of a slave, as it is written "thou shalt not make him to serve as a bondservant" (Leviticus 25,39).
, " , " ( ,). 258 Not to sell him as slaves are sold, as it is written "they shall not be sold as bondmen" (Leviticus 25,42).
, "- , " ( ,; ,). 259 Not to subjugate a Hebrew bondman to strenuous work, as it is written "thou shalt not rule over him with rigour" (Leviticus 25,43; Leviticus 25,46).
, "- , " ( ,). 260 Not to allow a Gentile to work a Hebrew bondman sold to him in strenuous work, as it is written "he shall not rule with rigour over him in thy sight" (Leviticus 25,53).
, "- , -" ( ,). 261 Not to sell a Hebrew bondmaid to another, as it is written "to sell her he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her" (Exodus 21,8).
, " , " ( ,); . 262 Not to withhold from an espoused Hebrew bondmaid food, clothing, or conjugal rights, as it is written "her food, her raiment, and her conjugal rights, shall he not diminish" (Exodus 21,10); and the same applies to all other women.
, " -, " ( ,). 263 Not to sell a beautiful woman taken captive in war, as it is written "but thou shalt not sell her at all for money" (Deuteronomy 21,14).
, "- " ( ,). 264 Not to subject a beautiful woman taken captive in war to be a bondmaid, as it is written "thou shalt not deal with her as a slave" (Deuteronomy 21,14).
, "- " ( ,; ,). 265 Not to covet, as it is written "thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife" (Exodus 20,13; Deuteronomy 5,17).
, " " ( ,). 266 Not to desire, as it is written "neither shalt thou desire thy neighbour's house" (Deuteronomy 5,17).
, " " ( ,). 267 That a hired worker shall not eat of produce of the land where he is working other than at the time when he is at work, as it is written "but thou shalt not move a sickle" (Deuteronomy 23,26)
, " ; -, " ( ,). 268 That the hired worker shall not take more than he eats, as it is written "then thou mayest eat grapes until thou have enough at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put any in thy vessel" (Deuteronomy 23,25).
, " , " ( ,). 269 Not to ignore a lost object, as it is written "thou mayest not hide thyself" (Deuteronomy 22,3).
, "- " ( ,; ,). 270 Not to leave an animal fallen down beneath its burden on the way unaided, as it is written "thou shalt not see the ass of him that hateth thee" (see Exodus 23,5; Deuteronomy 22,4).
, "- , , " ( ,); , . 271 Not to do injustice in measuring, as it is written "ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard" (Leviticus 19,35); it was learned from the oral tradition that this warns against unrighteousness in judging of measurements.
, "- , " ( ,). 272 Not to have in our possession diverse measures and weights, as it is written "thou shalt not have in thy house diverse measures" (Deuteronomy 25,14).
, "- , " ( ,). 273 Not to do injustice in a judgment, as it is written "ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment" (Leviticus 19,15)).
, ", " ( ,). 274 Not to take a bribe, as it is written "and thou shalt take no gift" (Exodus 23,8)
, " " ( ,). 275 Not to show favoritism toward an important man when judging, as it is written "nor favour the person of the mighty" (Leviticus 19,15).
, " -" ( ,). 276 That the judge not be afraid of a bad person when judging, as it is written "ye shall not be afraid of any man" (Deuteronomy 1,17).
, ", " ( ,). 277 Not to take pity on a poor person when judging, as it is written "neither shalt thou favour a poor man in his cause" (Exodus 23,3).
, " " ( ,); , . 278 Not to pervert the judgment of a sinner, as it is written "thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor" (Exodus 23,6); it was learned from the oral tradition that this is one poor in observance of commandments.
, " , " ( ,). 279 Not to pity the injuring party in imposing penalties, as it is written "thine eye shall not pity" (Deuteronomy 19,13).
, " , " ( ,). 280 Not to pervert the judgment of converts and orphans, as it is written "thou shalt not pervert the justice due to the stranger, or to the fatherless" (Deuteronomy 24,17).
, " , " ( ,). 281 Not to hear one of the parties to a case in the absence of the other, as it is written "thou shalt not accept a false report" (Exodus 23,1).
, , "- -, " ( ,). 282 Not to decide according to a majority in capital cases, if those for conviction are only one more than those for acquittal, as it is written "thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil" (Exodus 23,2).
, "- -, " ( ,). 283 That one who has first argued for acquittal shall not later argue for conviction in capital cases, as it is written "neither shalt thou bear witness in a cause to turn aside" (Exodus 23,2).
, , "- " ( ,). 284 Not to appoint as judge one who is not learned in the laws of the Torah, even if he is learned in other disciplines, as it is written "ye shall not respect persons in judgment" (Deuteronomy 1,17).
, "- " ( ,). 285 Not to testify falsely, as it is written "thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour" (Exodus 20,12).
, "- -, " ( ,). 286 That a habitual transgressor shall not testify, as it is written "put not thy hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness" (Exodus 23,1).
, "- -" ( ,); , . 287 That a relative shall not testify, as it is written "the fathers shall not be put to death for the children" (Deuteronomy 24,16); it was learned from the oral tradition that parents are not to be put to death on the testimony of their children, and the same applies to other relatives.
, "- " ( ,). 288 Not to decide a case on the testimony of a single witness, as it is written "one witness shall not rise up against a man" (Deuteronomy 19,15).
, " " ( ,; ,). 289 Not to kill an innocent person, as it is written "thou shalt not murder" (Exodus 20,12; Deuteronomy 5,16).
, , " -" ( ,). 290 Not to decide a case based on conjecture, but on the testimony of two eye witnesses, as it is written "and the innocent and righteous slay thou not" (Exodus 23,7).
, " , - " ( ,). 291 That a witness who testified in a capital case shall not give instruction on the law for that case, as it is written "but one witness shall not testify against any person" (Numbers 35,30).
, " , - " ( ,). 292 Not to execute one guilty of a capital offence before he has stood trial, as it is written "that the manslayer die not, until he stand before the congregation" (Numbers 35,12).
, , ", -: , " ( ,). 293 Not to pity the pursuer, but to kill him before he can kill or rape the pursued, as it is written "then thou shalt cut off her hand, thine eye shall have no pity" (Deuteronomy 25,12).
, " - " ( ,). 294 Not to punish one who sinned under duress, as it is written "but unto the damsel thou shalt do nothing" (Deuteronomy 22,26).
, "- " ( ,). 295 Not to take ransom from a murderer, as it is written "and ye shall take no ransom for the life of a murderer" (Numbers 35,31).
, "- , - " ( ,). 296 Not to take ransom from one who killed another accidentally to free him from exile, as it is written "and ye shall take no ransom for him that is fled to his city of refuge" (Numbers 35,32).
, " - " ( ,). 297 Not to stand by idly when life is in danger, as it is written "thou shalt not stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour" (Leviticus 19,16).
, "- " ( ,). 298 Not to leave harmful objects about, as it is written "that thou bring not blood upon thy house" (Deuteronomy 22,8).
, " , " ( ,). 299 Not to cause the innocent to stumble on the way, as it is written "nor put a stumbling-block before the blind" (Leviticus 19,14).
, " : -" ( ,). 300 Not to exceed the maximum for one liable to whipping, as it is written "he shall not exceed; lest, if he should exceed" (Deuteronomy 25,3).
, "- " ( ,). 301 Not to gossip, as it is written "thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people" (Leviticus 19,16).
, "- -, " ( ,). 302 Not to hate another in one's heart, as it is written "thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart" (Leviticus 19,17).
, " -, - " ( ,). 303 Not to shame any person of Israel, as it is written "thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him" (Leviticus 19,17).
, "-" ( ,). 304 Not to take revenge, as it is written "thou shalt not take vengeance" (Leviticus 19,18).
, "-" ( ,). 305 Not to bear a grudge, as it is written "nor bear any grudge" (Leviticus 19,18).
, "- , -" ( ,). 306 Not to take the mother bird with the young, as it is written "thou shalt not take the dam with the young" (Deuteronomy 22,6).
, "-, " ( ,). 307 Not to shave off the hair of the scall, as it is written "but the scall shall he not shave" (Leviticus 13,33).
, " -" ( ,). 308 Not to remove the signs of leprosy, as it is written "take heed in the plague of leprosy" (Deuteronomy 24,8).
, " - , " ( ,). 309 Not to till nor sow the riverbed where a heifer was decapitated, as it is written "which may neither be plowed nor sown" (Deuteronomy 21,4).
, , " , - -" ( ,). 310 That a groom in his first year shall not be liable to take part in any public work, such as army service, guarding the wall, and the like, as it is written "he shall not go out in the host, neither shall he be charged with any business" (Deuteronomy 24,5).
, ", " ( ,). 311 Not to allow a sorcerer to live, as it is written "thou shalt not suffer a sorceress to live" (Exodus 22,17).
, " , " ( ,). 312 Not to rebel against the Great Rabbinical Court, as it is written "thou shalt not turn aside from any sentence" (see Deuteronomy 17,11).
, , " -, -- , : - " ( ,). 313 Not to add to the Torah's commandments, whether in the Written Law or in its interpretation received by tradition, as it is written "all this word which I command you, that shall ye observe to do; thou shalt not add thereto" (Deuteronomy 13,1).
, " " ( ,). 314 Not to diminish from any of the Torah's commandments, as it is written "nor diminish from it" (Deuteronomy 13,1).
, ", " ( ,). 315 Not to curse a judge, as it is written "thou shalt not revile a judge" (Exodus 22,27).
, , " , " ( ,). 316 Not to curse a ruler, which is the King or the head of the Great Rabbinical Court in the Land of Israel, as it is written "nor curse a ruler of thy people" (Exodus 22,27).
, "- " ( ,). 317 Not to curse any other Israelite, as it is written "thou shalt not curse the deaf" (Leviticus 19,14).
, " , " ( ,). 318 Not to curse one's father or mother, as it is written "and he that curseth his father or his mother, shall surely be put to death" (Exodus 21,17).
, " , " ( ,). 319 Not to strike one's father or mother, as it is written "and he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death" (Exodus 21,15).
, "- -" ( ,; ,). 320 Not to do work on the Sabbath, as it is written "thou shalt not do any manner of work" (Exodus 20,9; Deuteronomy 5,13).
, "- " ( ,). 321 Not to take walks on the Sabbath outside the town's limits, as it is written "let no man go out of his place" (Exodus 16,29).
, "- , " ( ,). 322 Not to punish on the Sabbath, as it is written "ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations" (Exodus 35,3).
, "-, - " ( ,). 323 Not to do work on the first day of Pesach, as it is written "no manner of work shall be done in them" (Exodus 12,16).
, "-, - " ( ,). 324 Not to do work on the seventh day of Pesach, as it is written "no manner of work shall be done in them" (Exodus 12,16).
, "- , " ( ,; ,). 325 Not to do work on the Festival of Shavu`ot, as it is written on it "ye shall do no manner of servile work" (Leviticus 23,21; Numbers 28,26).
, "- , " ( ,; ,). 326 Not to do work on the first day of the seventh month, as it is written on it "ye shall do no manner of servile work" (Leviticus 23,25; Numbers 29,1)
, "- " ( ,; ,; ,; ,). 327 Not to do work on Yom Kippur, as it is written on it "ye shall do no manner of work" (Leviticus 16,29; Leviticus 23,28; Leviticus 23,31; Numbers 29,7).
, "- , " ( ,; ,). 328 Not to do work on the first day of Sukkot, as it is written on it "ye shall do no manner of servile work" (Leviticus 23,35; Numbers 29,12).
, "- , " ( ,; ,). 329 Not to do work on the eighth day of Sukkot, as it is written on it "ye shall do no manner of servile work" (Leviticus 23,36; Numbers 29,35).
, " , " ( ,). 330 Not to have sexual relations with one's mother, as it is written "she is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness" (Leviticus 18,7).
, " -, " ( ,). 331 Not to have sexual relations with one's father's wife, as it is written "the nakedness of thy father's wife shalt thou not uncover" (Leviticus 18,8).
, " ... " ( ,). 332 Not to have sexual relations with one's sister, as it is written "the nakedness of thy sister ... thou shalt not uncover" (Leviticus 18,9).
, " - ... -- , " ( ,). 333 Not to have sexual relations with a sister from the father or from the mother, as it is written "the nakedness of thy father's wife's daughter ... she is thy sister, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness" (Leviticus 18,11).
, " -" ( ,). 334 Not to have sexual relations with one's son's daughter, as it is written "the nakedness of thy son's daughter" (Leviticus 18,10).
, " -, " ( ,). 335 Not to have sexual relations with one's daughter's daughter, as it is written "or of thy daughter's daughter, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover" (Leviticus 18,10).
; , , , . 336 Not to have sexual relations with one's daughter; and the reason this was not explicitly set forth in the Torah is that since the Torah forbids one's daughter's daughter, it hardly needed to mention one's own daughter, and it was learned from the oral tradition that prohibition of the daughter is a law of the Torah itself, like the other severely forbidden sexual relations.
, " , " ( ,). 337 Not to have sexual relations with a woman and her daughter, as it is written "thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter" (Leviticus 18,17).
, "--" ( ,). 338 Not to have sexual relations with a woman and her son's daughter, as it is written "her son's daughter" (Leviticus 18,17).
, "--, " ( ,). 339 Not to have sexual relations with a woman and her daughter's daughter, as it is written "or her daughter's daughter, thou shalt not take" (Leviticus 18,17).
, " -, " ( ,). 340 Not to have sexual relations with one's father's sister, as it is written "thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father's sister" (Leviticus 18,12).
, " -, " ( ,). 341 Not to have sexual relations with one's mother's sister, as it is written "thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother's sister" (Leviticus 18,13).
, "- , " ( ,). 342 Not to have sexual relations with one's father's brother's wife, as it is written "thou shalt not approach to his wife: she is thine aunt" (Leviticus 18,14).
, " , " ( ,). 343 Not to have sexual relations with one's son's wife, as it is written "thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter-in-law" (Leviticus 18,15).
, " -, " ( ,). 344 Not to have sexual relations with one's brother's wife, as it is written "thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother's wife" (Leviticus 18,16).
, " -, " ( ,). 345 Not to have sexual relations with one's wife's sister, as it is written "and thou shalt not take a woman to her sister" (Leviticus 18,18).
, "-, -- " ( ,). 346 Not to have sexual relations with a woman unclean from menstruation, as it is written "and thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is impure by her uncleanness" (Leviticus 18,19).
, "-, --- " ( ,). 347 Not to have sexual relations with another man's wife, as it is written "and thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour's wife" (Leviticus 18,20).
, "- - " ( ,). 348 Not to have sexual relations with an animal, as it is written "and thou shalt not lie with any beast" (Leviticus 18,23).
, ", - " ( ,). 349 That a woman shall not have sexual relations with an animal, as it is written "neither shall any woman stand before a beast, to lie down thereto" (Leviticus 18,23).
, "--- " ( ,). 350 Not to have sexual relations with a male, as it is written "thou shalt not lie with mankind" (Leviticus 18,22).
, " ... " ( ,). 351 Not to have sexual relations with one's father, as it is written "the nakedness of thy father ... shalt thou not uncover" (Leviticus 18,7).
, " -, " ( ,). 352 Not to have sexual relations with one's father's brother, as it is written "thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father's brother" (Leviticus 18,14).
, , "-- , " ( ,); . 353 Not to be intimate with one with which sexual relations are severely forbidden, such as embracing, kissing, hinting, and skipping, which might lead to sexual relations, as it is written "none of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness" (Leviticus 18,6); it was learned from the oral tradition that this is a warning against intimacy that might lead to sexual relations.
, "- , '" ( ,). 354 That a mamzer shall not marry an Israelite woman, as it is written "a bastard shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD" (Deuteronomy 23,3).
, , "- " ( ,). 355 That there shall be no prostitute, which is a woman who has sexual relations without a marriage contract and sanctification ceremony, as it is written "there shall be no harlot" (Deuteronomy 23,18).
, "- ..." ( ,). 356 That one who divorced his wife shall not remarry her after she has been married to another, as it is written "her former husband may not ..." (Deuteronomy 24,4).
, "- -" ( ,). 357 That a widow whose husband died childless shall not be married to anyone but her deceased husband's brother, as it is written "the wife of the dead shall not be" (Deuteronomy 25,5).
, "- , -" ( ,). 358 That the rapist shall not divorce his rape victim, as it is written "he may not put her away all his days" (Deuteronomy 22,29).
, "- -" ( ,). 359 That one who defames his wife as a non-virgin at marriage shall not divorce his wife, as it is written "he may not put her away all his days" (Deuteronomy 22,19).
, "- -" ( ,). 360 That a eunuch shall not marry an Israelite woman, as it is written "he that is crushed in his privy parts shall not enter" (Deuteronomy 23,2).
, , ", " ( ,). 361 Not to castrate a male of any species, neither a man, nor a domestic or wild animal, nor a fowl, as it is written "neither shall ye do thus in your land" (Leviticus 22,24).
, " " ( ,). 362 Not to appoint as a ruling authority over Israel one from the congregation of converts, as it is written "thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee" (Deuteronomy 17,15).
, "-- " ( ,). 363 That the King shall not have too many horses, as it is written "only he shall not multiply horses to himself" (Deuteronomy 17,16).
, " - " ( ,). 364 That the King shall not have too many wives, as it is written "neither shall he multiply wives to himself" (Deuteronomy 17,17).
, " , - " ( ,).
365 That he shall not have too much silver and gold, as it is written "neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold" (Deuteronomy 17,17).
, ; , . Comment 1 These are the six hundred and thirteen commandments that were said to Moshe [Moses] on Sinai, together with their general principles, detailed applications, and minute particulars; and all these principles, details, and particulars as well as the explanation of each and every commandment are the Oral Law, which each court received from its predecessor.
, -- , , , , . ; . Comment 2 There are other commandments that were enacted after the giving of the Torah, which were instituted by prophets and sages and became accepted by all Israel--such as the reading of the scroll of Esther, the lighting of Chanukkah candles, the fasting on the Ninth of Av, the washing of the hands, and the making of eruvin. And for each and every one of these commandments, there are commentaries and details; and all of them will be explained in this work.
-- , " , - ..." ( ,); . "- ... " ( ,)-- , . Comment 3 We must accept and observe all of these enacted commandments, as it is written "thou shalt not turn aside from any of the sentences ..." (see Deuteronomy 17,11); and they are not an addition to the commandments of the Torah. The point of the Torah's warning "thou shalt not add ... nor diminish" (Deuteronomy 13,1) is that no prophet is allowed to make an innovation and say that the Holy One blessed be He had commanded him in this commandment to add it to the commandments of the Torah, or to take away one of these six hundred and thirteen commandments.
, , -- : . , . Comment 4 But if the Great Rabbinical Court with the prophet living at the time institutes a commandment as an positive legislation, or as an instruction, or as a negative legislation, this is not an addition: for they have not said that the Holy One blessed be He commanded to make an eruv or to read the scroll of Esther at its appointed time. But if they had said so, they would have been adding to the Torah.
, , , , "- , - " ( ,; ,). , .
Comment 5 Rather, we say that the prophets with the Great Rabbinical Court legislated and ordered to read the scroll of Esther at its appointed time to recall the praises of the Holy One blessed be He and the salvation He did for us, and that He was ever ready when we cried to Him, and that we should therefore bless and praise Him, and inform future generations how true is what is promised in the Torah "for what great nation is there that hath God so nigh unto it" (see Deuteronomy 4,7; Deuteronomy 4,8). And in this way is to be seen each and every rabbinical commandment, whether positive or negative.

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last updated: 31 January 2011

Mishneh Torah - Preface

Introduction | Positive Commandments | Negative Commandments | Structure of the 14 Books